Stone Age & Medieval

The Paleolithic   (old age of stone)
is a prehistoric era distinguished by the development of stone tools. Starting about 2.6 million years ago, hominids developed simple tools made of stone, bone and wood. by 10,ooo BC tools were being used for agriculture.

Paleolithic axe 100-75,000 BC

 Lower paleolithic humans constructed hand axes, digging implements, and animal traps. Scrappers were most likely made for the purpose of skinning and butchering animals.

                      Late paleolithic 40,000 BC 

Mesolithic (Middle Stone Age)  Stone tools became smaller and more delicate than those of the paleolithic period. Mesolithic  peoples migrated from Pyrenees region and settled in Switzerland, Belgium and Scotland. Toward the end of this period smaller settlements sprang up in different parts of Europe. 

   Flint core axe found in the Danube river valley Romani 75,000 BC. 

  Flint was commonly used because of its predictable properties in chipping. Other stone tools were found such as chert and quartz.

 Axe  found in Grena Djursland Denmark. Ertebolle culture   8,000 BC.

Massive tools are rare. The most common tools found in this era, are bones scraped to thin needles most likely for eating sea shells, snails and other small foods. 

Neolithic ( New Stone Age )
Peoples were skilled farmers. Tools such as sickle blades, grinding stones, and projectile points were being manufactured. Copper hatchets and spear heads were found in the great lakes region ( U.S.A. ) from this time period.

           Flaked and polished flint axes found in Skane                                                  Denmark. 3000 BC.

                              Typical stone age family.

Chalcolithic  ( Copper Age )
Metal tools developed first in the Middle East cultures. European cultures arrived in the copper age later but advanced to the bronze age sooner.

Two examples of  axes found in Razgrad Bulgaria.  

Bronze Age went through three phases, early, middle and late. Smelters mixed arsenic and tin with copper. This mixture was stronger than copper with a lower melt temperature.

      These axe heads were found through out Europe. 2500-1200 BC.

By the middle bronze age tools were being developed using iron. Iron was more expensive than than gold. The earliest use of  Iron tools originated in Anatolia. Iron tools were difficult to produce due to the melt temperature being higher than that of bronze. 

Celtic Iron axes found in a mountain top fortress at lower Bavaria, Germany 500 BC.

            Roman Iron Axe found in Eastern Europe. 100-300 C.E.

                Viking Felling Axe from Costal Estonia 100 C.E.

Viking Axe found in a Viking ring fortification camp at Trellebough Denmark. 11th-12th century C.E.

Medieval Iron Axe found near Castle Bodenstein Worbis Germany. 14th Century C.E.

Medieval Hewing Iron Axe found inside a fortification near Vienna Austria. 1300-1400 C.E.

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